- The Ministry of Transportation and Communications (MOTC) is charged with administrating all aspects of transportation and communications within the Republic of China. Its operational duties are divided among four major categories: transportation, tourism, meteorology, and communications. In addition to its operational areas of responsibility, the MOTC is also responsible for establishing policies and formulating laws and regulations related to transportation and communications, and for overseeing the operation of agencies under it.
- The MOTC’s transportation sector responsibilities cover land, sea, and air transport.
- Land transport includes rail and road transport. The Railway Bureau is in charge of the construction, supervision and management of railways, mass transit and other railway transportation systems. General railway business is handled by the Taiwan Railway Administration. The highway network is operated by the Directorate General of Highways. Taiwan's freeways and expressways are constructed, managed and maintained by the Freeway Bureau.
- Marine transportation includes shipping, ports and harbors. Whereas the shipping industry is operated by the private sector, in March 2012 the MOTC has separated the port authority from port business operations by establishing the “Maritime and Port Bureau” as the port authority and “Taiwan International Ports Corporation, Ltd” to handle port business operations.
- Air transportation includes airline companies and airports. Airline companies are privately operated, whereas airports and flight navigation services are operated by the Civil Aeronautics Administration. Starting on November 1, 2010, airport operations at the Taoyuan International Airport were handed over to the newly established Taoyuan International Airport Corporation Ltd. (TAC).
- The Tourism Bureau provides planning and oversight for the development of the tourism sector. Its duties include publicizing and promoting Taiwan to international markets; overseeing and assisting the tourism industry; planning, constructing, and managing recreational areas; managing and promoting domestic tourism; and analyzing and researching the tourism market.
- The Central Weather Bureau handles all national meteorological operations. Its duties include the acquisition and processing of meteorological observation data, weather and seismic monitoring and forecasting, marine forecasting, and the dissemination of information.
- Communications encompass postal services. Postal services are managed by Chunghwa Post Co., Ltd.