- The Ministry of Transportation and Communications (MOTC) is charged with administrating all aspects of transportation and communications within the Republic of China. Its operational duties are divided among four major categories: transportation, tourism, meteorology, and communications. In addition to its operational areas of responsibility, the MOTC is also responsible for establishing policies and formulating laws and regulations related to transportation and communications, and for overseeing the operation of agencies under it.
- The MOTC’s transportation sector responsibilities cover land, sea, and air transport.
- With regard to land transportation, the nation’s highways and railways (including general railways, mass-rapid-transit systems, and the high-speed rail) are the MOTC’s main areas of responsibility. The island’s general railways are operated by the Taiwan Railways Administration and maintained by the Railway Reconstruction Bureau. Separate mass-rapid-transit systems are managed by the High Speed Rail Bureau, the Taipei City Government, the Taichung City Government and the Kaohsiung City Government. The nation’s high-speed-rail system is managed by the High Speed Rail Bureau. The highway network is operated by the Directorate General of Highways. Taiwan's freeways and expressways are constructed, managed and maintained by the National Freeway Bureau.
- Marine transportation includes shipping, ports and harbors. Whereas the shipping industry is operated by the private sector, in March 2012 the MOTC has separated the port authority from port business operations by establishing the “Maritime and Port Bureau” as the port authority and “Taiwan International Ports Corporation, Ltd” to handle port business operations.
- Air transportation includes airline companies and airports. Airline companies are privately operated, whereas airports and flight navigation services are operated by the Civil Aeronautics Administration. Starting on November 1, 2010, airport operations at the Taoyuan International Airport were handed over to the newly established Taoyuan International Airport Corporation Ltd. (TAC).
- The Tourism Bureau provides planning and oversight for the development of the tourism sector. Its duties include publicizing and promoting Taiwan to international markets; overseeing and assisting the tourism industry; planning, constructing, and managing recreational areas; managing and promoting domestic tourism; and analyzing and researching the tourism market.
- The Central Weather Bureau handles all national meteorological operations. Its duties include the acquisition and processing of meteorological observation data, weather and seismic monitoring and forecasting, marine forecasting, and the dissemination of information.
- Communications encompass postal services and telecommunications. Postal services are managed by Chunghwa Post Co., Ltd. With regard to telecommunications, the MOTC is responsible for the overall planning of communications resources, assisting and promoting the communications industry, and fostering universal access to communications technology.